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Location: Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 S, 76 00 W

Map references: South America

total: 1,285,220 sq km
land: 1.28 million sq km
water: 5,220 sq km

Area—comparative: slightly smaller than Alaska

Land boundaries:
total: 6,940 km
border countries: Bolivia 900 km, Brazil 1,560 km, Chile 160 km, Colombia 2,900 km, Ecuador 1,420 km

Coastline: 2,414 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 nm
territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west

Terrain: western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m

Natural resources: copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 21%
forests and woodland: 66%
other: 10% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 12,800 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity

Environment—current issues: deforestation; overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes

Environment—international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography—note: shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia


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Population: 26,111,110 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 36% (male 4,745,363; female 4,589,017)
15-64 years: 60% (male 7,856,414; female 7,752,085)
65 years and over: 4% (male 535,566; female 632,665) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.97% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 26.69 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.81 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 43.42 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 69.97 years
male: 67.78 years
female: 72.25 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.31 children born/woman (1998 est.)

noun: Peruvian(s)
adjective: Peruvian

Ethnic groups: Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic

Languages: Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 88.7%
male: 94.5%
female: 83% (1995 est.)


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Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Peru
conventional short form: Peru
local long form: Republica del Peru
local short form: Peru

Data code: PE

Government type: republic

National capital: Lima

Administrative divisions: 24 departments (departamentos, singular—departamento) and 1 constitutional province* (provincia constitucional); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao*, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali
note: the 1979 constitution mandated the creation of regions (regiones, singular - region) to function eventually as autonomous economic and administrative entities; so far, 12 regions have been constituted from 23 of the 24 departments - Amazonas (from Loreto), Andres Avelino Caceres (from Huanuco, Pasco, Junin), Arequipa (from Arequipa), Chavin (from Ancash), Grau (from Tumbes, Piura), Inca (from Cusco, Madre de Dios, Apurimac), La Libertad (from La Libertad), Los Libertadores-Huari (from Ica, Ayacucho, Huancavelica), Mariategui (from Moquegua, Tacna, Puno), Nor Oriental del Maranon (from Lambayeque, Cajamarca, Amazonas), San Martin (from San Martin), Ucayali (from Ucayali); formation of another region has been delayed by the reluctance of the constitutional province of Callao to merge with the department of Lima; because of inadequate funding from the central government and organizational and political difficulties, the regions have yet to assume major responsibilities; the 1993 constitution retains the regions but limits their authority; the 1993 constitution also reaffirms the roles of departmental and municipal governments

Independence: 28 July 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 July (1821)

Constitution: 31 December 1993

Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Alberto Kenyo FUJIMORI Fujimori (since 28 July 1990); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Alberto Kenyo FUJIMORI Fujimori (since 28 July 1990); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
note: Prime Minister Alberto PANDOLFI Arbulu (since 3 April 1996) does not exercise executive power; this power is in the hands of the president
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 9 April 1995 (next to be held NA 2000)
election results: President FUJIMORI reelected; percent of vote—Alberto FUJIMORI 64.42%, Javier PEREZ de CUELLAR 21.80%, Mercedes CABANILLAS 4.11%, other 9.67%

Legislative branch: unicameral Democratic Constituent Congress or Congresso Constituyente Democratico (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 9 April 1995 (next to be held NA April 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party—C90/NM 52.1%, UPP 14%, 11 other parties 33.9%; seats by party, when installed on 28 July 1995—C90/NM 67, UPP 17, APRA 8, FIM 6, (CODE)-Pais Posible 5, AP 4, PPC 3, Renovacion 3, IU 2, OBRAS 2, other parties 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia), judges are appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary

Political parties and leaders: Change 90-New Majority (C90/NM), Alberto FUJIMORI; Union for Peru (UPP), Javier PEREZ de CUELLAR; American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA), Luis ALVA Castro; Independent Moralizing Front (FIM), Fernando OLIVERA Vega; Democratic Coordinator (CODE)—Pais Posible, Jose BARBA Caballero and Alejandro TOLEDO; Popular Action Party (AP), Juan DIAZ Leon; Popular Christian Party (PPC), Luis BEDOYA Reyes; Renovation Party, Rafael REY Rey; Civic Works Movement (OBRAS), Ricardo BELMONT; United Left (IU); Independent Agrarian Movement (MIA)

Political pressure groups and leaders: leftist guerrilla groups include Shining Path, Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Oscar RAMIREZ Durand (top leader at large); Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement or MRTA, Victor POLAY (imprisoned), Hugo AVALLENEDA Valdez (top leader at large)

International organization participation: AG, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ricardo V. LUNA MENDOZA
chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869
FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124
consulate(s) general: Agana (Guam), Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Dennis C. JETT
embassy: Avenida Encalada, Cuadra 17, Monterrico, Lima
mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031-5000
telephone: [51] (1) 434-3000
FAX: [51] (1) 434-3037

Flag description: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a llama, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath


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Economy—overview: The Peruvian economy has become increasingly market-oriented, with major privatizations completed since 1990 in the mining, electricity, and telecommunications industries. In the 1980s, the economy suffered from hyperinflation, declining per capita output, and mounting external debt. Peru was shut off from IMF and World Bank support in the mid-1980s because of its huge debt arrears. An austerity program implemented shortly after the FUJIMORI government took office in July 1990 contributed to a third consecutive yearly contraction of economic activity, but the slide came to a halt late that year, and in 1991 output rose 2.4%. After a burst of inflation as the austerity program eliminated government price subsidies, monthly price increases eased to the single-digit level and by December 1991 dropped to the lowest increase since mid-1987. Lima obtained a financial rescue package from multilateral lenders in September 1991, although it faced $14 billion in arrears on its external debt. By working with the IMF and World Bank on new financial conditions and arrangements, the government succeeded in ending its arrears by March 1993. In 1992, GDP fell by 2.8%, in part because a warmer-than-usual El Nino current resulted in a 30% drop in the fish catch, but the economy rebounded as strong foreign investment helped push growth to 7% in 1993, about 13% in 1994, and 6.8% in 1995. Growth slowed to about 2.8% in 1996 as the government adopted tight fiscal and monetary policy to reduce the current account deficit and meet its IMF targets. Growth then rebounded to 7.3% in 1997 even as inflation fell to its lowest level in 23 years. Capital inflows surged to record levels in early 1997 and have remained strong despite economic shocks stemming from the Asian financial crisis and the El Nino weather events.

GDP: purchasing power parity—$110.2 billion (1997 est.)

GDP—real growth rate: 7.3% (1997 est.)

GDP—per capita: purchasing power parity—$4,420 (1997 est.)

GDP—composition by sector:
agriculture: 14%
industry: 41%
services: 45% (1996)

Inflation rate—consumer price index: 6.7% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 7.6 million (1996 est.)
by occupation: agriculture, mining and quarrying, manufacturing, construction, transport, services

Unemployment rate: 8.2%; extensive underemployment (1996)

revenues: $8.5 billion
expenditures: $9.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $2 billion (1996 est.)

Industries: mining of metals, petroleum, fishing, textiles, clothing, food processing, cement, auto assembly, steel, shipbuilding, metal fabrication

Industrial production growth rate: 1.2% (1996)

Electricity—capacity: 4.187 million kW (1995)

Electricity—production: 15.6 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity—consumption per capita: 648 kWh (1995)

Agriculture—products: coffee, cotton, sugarcane, rice, wheat, potatoes, plantains, coca; poultry, red meats, dairy products, wool; fish catch of 6.9 million metric tons (1990)

total value: $5.9 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: copper, zinc, fishmeal, crude petroleum and byproducts, lead, refined silver, coffee, cotton
partners: US 20%, Japan 7%, UK 7%, China 7%, Germany 5% (1996)

total value: $9.2 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum, iron and steel, chemicals, pharmaceuticals
partners: US 31%, Colombia 7%, Chile 6%, Venezuela 6%, UK 6% (1996)

Debt—external: $25.7 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $363 million (1993)

Currency: 1 nuevo sol (S/.) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: nuevo sol (S/.) per US$1—2.750 (January 1998), 2.664 (1997), 2.453 (1996), 2.253 (1995), 2.195 (1994), 1.988 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year


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Telephones: 779,306 (1990 est.)

Telephone system: adequate for most requirements
domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations
international: satellite earth stations—2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 273, FM 0, shortwave 144

Radios: 5.7 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 140

Televisions: 2 million (1993 est.)


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total: 2,041 km
standard gauge: 1,726 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 315 km 0.914-m gauge (1994)

total: 72,800 km
paved: 7,353 km
unpaved: 65,447 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system and 208 km of Lago Titicaca

Pipelines: crude oil 800 km; natural gas and natural gas liquids 64 km

Ports and harbors: Callao, Chimbote, Ilo, Matarani, Paita, Puerto Maldonado, Salaverry, San Martin, Talara, Iquitos, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas
note: Iquitos, Pucallpa, and Yurimaguas are all on the upper reaches of the Amazon and its tributaries

Merchant marine:
total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 68,752 GRT/100,213 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 7 (1997 est.)

Airports: 244 (1997 est.)

Airports—with paved runways:
total: 43
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 15
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports—with unpaved runways:
total: 201
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 24
914 to 1,523 m: 73
under 914 m: 100 (1997 est.)





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